Nicole Ardoin holds a joint appointment with the Graduate School of Education and the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. A unifying theme across Professor Ardoin’s work is an interest in education as an opportunity to engage communities in productive, critical dialogue about sustainability to build resiliency and adaptability in light of changing environmental conditions. To this end, Dr. Ardoin’s current research includes studies on motivations for and barriers to environmental behavior among a range of audiences and in varying settings; program evaluation and adaptive management in informal settings such as parks and museums; the use of social strategies by non-governmental organizations to engage individuals and communities in decision-making related to natural resource management; leadership and training programs in natural resources and conservation; and the impact of “green” buildings and the built environment on environmental attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors.
Environmental Learning in the San Francisco Bay Area: Networks, Place Connections, Stewardship, and Educational Outcomes (2012–2015; funded by the S. D. Bechtel, Jr. Foundation)
Community Conservation: Examining Environmental Behavior as Motivated by Participation in Aquarium Programs (2014–2016; in partnership with the Monterey Bay Aquarium)
Blue Habits: Motivating Lasting Pro-Ocean Behaviors among Nature-Based Travelers and Beyond (2014–2015; in partnership with the Oceanic Society)
Evaluating the Impact of Field-Based Environmental Education Citizen Science Experiences on Stewardship Behavior (2014–2015; funded by NatureBridge and NOAA B-WET)
Environmental Education for Academic Impact: Investigating the Empirical Basis (2014; funded by the Pisces Foundation)
Improving the Next Generation of Grantmaking through Building the Capacity of Foundation Program Officers in Evaluation and Adaptive Management (2012–2014; in collaboration with C.R. Hibbs and the Stanford Center for Philanthropy and Civil Society; funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation)
The Value of Nature Centers to Communities, Stakeholders, and Conservation (2010–2015; in collaboration with Joe Heimlich, The Ohio State University; Marc Stern, Virginia Tech; the National Audubon Society; funded by the Institute for Museum and Library Sciences)
Facilitating Environmental Behavior: Leveraging Nature-Based Tourism Experiences into Everyday Stewardship (2011–2014; in collaboration with William Durham, Anthropology; funded by the Woods Environmental Ventures Project Fund)
Translating Environmental Education Research into Practice (2011–2013; funded by NatureBridge)
TogetherGreen Research and Evaluation, National Audubon Society (2009–2013; in collaboration with Marc Stern, Virginia Tech; and Bob Powell, Clemson University; funded by Toyota North America)
Community-based Interventions for Enhancing Residential Energy Efficiency (2010–2012; in collaboration with Tom Robinson, Stanford University School of Medicine, the Precourt Energy Efficiency Center and H-STAR, funded by the ARPA-E program of the U.S. Dept. of Energy)
Community/Youth Development and Organizations
Qualitative Research Methods
Youth Development and Organizations
Ph.D., Forestry & Environmental Studies (Social Ecology), Yale University
M.Phil., Forestry & Environmental Studies (Social Ecology), Yale University
M.S., Natural Resource Management (Environmental Education & Interpretation), University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point
B.B.A., International Business & French, James Madison University
Time at Stanford
Environmental Consultant, 2001 to 2008 (International conservation projects and research, exhibition design and development, environmental and conservation program evaluation, curriculum development, educator training)
Exhibition Coordinator and Education Specialist, World Wildlife Fund (DC), 1998 to 2001
Environmental Education Specialist, Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education (WI), 1996 to 1998
Museum Educator, Discovery Creek Children's Museum of Washington (DC), 1995 to 1996
Interpretive Ranger, Student Conservation Association & Grand Canyon National Park (AZ), 1994
Theory and Practice of Environmental Education
Science and Environmental Education in Informal Settings
Research Approaches for Environmental Problem Solving
Sense of Place Seminar
Environmental Learning and Environmental Behavior Seminar
Interdisciplinary Environmental Problem Solving
Sophomore College: Water in the West: A trip down the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon
Social Ecology Lab Group (ongoing)
Ardoin, N.M., DiGiano, M.,** O’Connor, K.,* and Holthuis, N. (In press.) Using Online Narratives to Explore Participant Experiences in a Residential Environmental Education Program. Children’s Geographies.
Ardoin, N.M., Wheaton, M., Bowers, A., Hunt, C.A., Durham, W. (In press.) Nature-Based Tourism’s Impact on Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior: A review and analysis of the literature and potential future research. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.
Ardoin, N.M., Biedenweg, K., and O'Connor, K.* (In press.) Evaluation in Residential Environmental Education: An applied literature review of intermediary outcomes. Applied Environmental Education and Communication.
Gould, R. K.,* Ardoin, N.M., Woodside, U., Satterfield, T., Hannahs, N., and Daily, G. C. 2014. The Forest Has a Story: Cultural Ecosystem Services in Kona, Hawai’i. Ecology & Society.
Rich, H.* and Ardoin, N.M. 2014. Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of School Gardens in Cape Town, South Africa. Children, Youth and Environments.
Gould, R.K.,* Klain, S., Ardoin, N.M., Woodside, U., Hannahs, N., Satterfield, T., Chan, K., Levine, J., and Daily, G.C. 2014. Eliciting Nonmaterial Values with a Protocol for Place-Based Explorations of Cultural Ecosystem Services. Conservation Biology.
Ardoin, N.M., Gould, R.K.,** Kelsey, E., and Fielding-Singh, P. 2014. Collaborative and Transformational Leadership in the Environmental Realm. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning. doi: ~10.1080/1523908X.2014.954075
Boudet, H.S.,** Ardoin, N.M., Flora, J., Armel, K.C., and Robinson, T.R. 2014. Energy Behaviours of Northern California Girl Scouts and Their Families. Energy Policy. doi: ~10.1016/j.enpol.2014.05.044
Ardoin, N.M. 2014. Exploring Sense of Place and Environmental Behavior at an Ecoregional Scale in Three Sites. Human Ecology. DOI 10.1007/s10745-014-9652-x.
Ardoin, N.M., DiGiano, M., Bundy, J.,* Chang, S.,* Holthuis, N., and O’Connor, K.* 2013. Using Digital Photography and Journaling in Evaluation of Field-Based Environmental Education Programs. Studies in Educational Evaluation. DOI: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2013.09.009.
Lukacs, H.* and Ardoin, N.M. 2013. The Relationship of Place Re-making and Watershed Group Participation in Appalachia. Society and Natural Resources. DOI: 10.1080/08941920.2013.840876.
Ardoin, N.M., Castrechini, S., and Hofstedt, M. 2013. Youth–Community–University Partnerships and Sense of Place: Two case studies of youth participatory action research. Children’s Geographies. doi.org/10.1080/14733285.2013.827872
Stedman, R.C. and Ardoin, N.M. 2013. Mobility and Scale in Place-Based Environmental Education. In Trading Zones in Environmental Education: Creating transdisciplinary dialogue, edited by M. Krasny and J. Dillon. New York: Peter Lang.
Ardoin, N.M. and Heimlich, J.E. 2013. Views from the Field: Conservation educators' and practitioners' perceptions of education as a strategy for achieving conservation outcomes. Journal of Environmental Education. 44(2): 97-115.
Vaughan, M.* and Ardoin, N.M. 2013. The Management Implications of Differing Tourist/Resident Perceptions for Community-Based Resource Management: A Hawaiian coastal resource area study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2013.802326.
Ardoin, N.M., Clark, C.R., and Kelsey, E. 2012. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research. Environmental Education Research. DOI: 10.1080/13504622.2012.709823
Ardoin, N.M. and Bowers, A.W. 2012. Trends in Philanthropic Support: Foundation funding of environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education 43(4): 259-273.
Ardoin, N.M., Schuh, J.S.,** and Gould, R.K.* 2012. Exploring the Dimensions of Place: A confirmatory factor analysis of data from three ecoregional sites. Environmental Education Research 18(5): 583-607.
Oshun, M.,* Ardoin, N.M., and Ryan, S. 2011. Use of the Planning Outreach Liaison Model in the Neighborhood Planning Process: A case study in Seattle's Rainier Valley neighborhood. Urban Studies Research. Available online at: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/usr/2011/687834/cta/
Khalil, K.* and Ardoin, N. 2011. Programmatic Evaluation in Association of Zoos and Aquariums-Accredited Zoos and Aquariums: A literature review. Applied Environmental Education and Communication 10(3): 168-177.
Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., Krohn, B., and Ardoin, N.M. 2011. Development and Validation of Scales to Measure Environmental Responsibility, Character Development, and Attitudes toward School. Environmental Education Research 17(1): 91-111.
Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., and Ardoin, N.M. 2011. Evaluating a Constructivist and Culturally Responsive Approach to Environmental Education for Diverse Audiences. Journal of Environmental Education 42(2): 109-122.
Gould, R.,* Ardoin, N., and Hashimoto, J. 2010. Mālama the ‘āina, Mālama the People on the āina: The Reaction to Avatar in Hawai’i. Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature, and Culture 4(4).
Ardoin, N.M. 2009. Strategy for the Future: Environmental Education (Funder's Briefing). Environmental Grantmakers Association: New York.
Ardoin, N.M. 2009. Behavior Change Theories and Free-Choice Environmental Learning. In Free-Choice Learning and the Environment, edited by J. Falk, J.E. Heimlich, and S. Foutz. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Heimlich, J.E., and Ardoin, N.M. 2008. Understanding Behavior to Understand Behavior Change: A Literature Review. Environmental Education Research. 14(3): 215-237.
Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., and Ardoin, N.M. 2008. What Difference Does It Make? Assessing Outcomes from Participation in a Residential Environmental Education Program. Journal of Environmental Education, 39(4): 31-43.
Powell, R.B., Stern, M.J., and Ardoin, N.M. 2006. A Sustainable Evaluation Framework and Its Application. Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 5: 231-241.
Ardoin, N.M. and Sivek, D.J. 2005. An Environmental Education Needs Assessment Study in Nicaragua. Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 1(4): 235-244.
*Student (Ph.D., master's, or undergraduate)
Chair, Education Committee, Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University
Affiliated Faculty; Admissions and Advisory Committee Member, Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (E-IPER), Stanford University
Faculty Steering Committee, Stanford Center on Philanthropy and Civil Society
Member, Committee of the Whole and Affiliated Faculty, Earth Systems Program, Stanford University
Faculty Lead, Interdisciplinary Environmental Conference for Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Fellows, Stanford University
Service to the Field:
Associate Editor, Environmental Education Research
Consulting Editor, Journal of Environmental Education; Children, Youth, and Environments
Chair, Education Advisory Council, NatureBridge
Member, Program Committee of the Board, Monterey Bay Aquarium
Member, Advisory Council, The Brainerd Foundation
Founding Member, Blue Sky Funders Forum
Chair, Research Council, ChangeScale (formerly the Environmental Education Collaborative)
Member, Education Committee, Society for Conservation Biology
Research Fellow, Environmental Grantmakers Association
Advisory Board Member, Public Participation in Scientific Research for Conservation Outcomes, NSF-Funded Workshop Sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, and National Audubon Society
Advisory Board Member, FieldScope Project (NSF), National Geographic Society
Advisory Board Member, Potential for Everyday Learning in a Design-Based Community (NSF), Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology
Reviewer: Applied Environmental Education and Communications; Canadian Journal of Environmental Education; Conservation Biology; Environment and Behavior; Human Ecology; Science Education; Climatic Change
Stanford Graduate School of Education
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