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Cluster Courses

Students are required to take a minimum of two courses in each of the three thematic clusters of Knowledge, Theory, and Skills as they develop balanced perspectives on leadership in education. Below the description of the thematic clusters are lists of courses that satisfy each cluster requirement. Beyond the six required thematic cluster courses, POLS students may take electives within the Graduate School of Education and throughout Stanford. For information on courses offered at Stanford University, please visit Explore Courses. For program requirements pertaining to the current cohort of students, please see the MA Handbook.

Knowledge - 2 courses minimum

Growing as a leader begins with an understanding of the purposes, policies, practices, and challenges of organizations focused on education. Leadership knowledge ranges from the relationships of schools and districts to local, state, and federal governments; to education technology entrepreneurship; to the evolving role of higher education in society. The well-prepared education leader has knowledge of the education landscape that is both broad and deep.

Theory - 2 courses minimum

Leaders need frameworks and perspectives that help them to understand the complex organizations they presume to lead. Learning theory helps the prospective leader to make sense of confusing situations, conflicting goals, and puzzling outcomes. Learning a broad range of theory related to leading education organizations allows students to develop a personalized framework for addressing complex challenges.

Skills - 2 courses minimum

Students apply their leadership knowledge and understanding of leadership theory in courses that focus on leadership skills. The POLS program is enhanced by these opportunities to connect research and theory to practice. This cluster completes a well-rounded course of study focused on leading a wide range of education organizations.

Courses

Knowledge

EDUC 213 Introduction to Teaching (H. Borko, E. Szu) (3-4) (PK12, NP, EP)
This introductory course is critically important to those aspiring to work in any pre-K - 12 related setting who have never actually taught. Students with teaching experience are also welcome. Key concepts and practical perspectives on teaching and learning are emphasized. 
EDUC 220D History of School Reform (D. Labaree) (3-5) (PK12, NP, EP, ET)
POLS students interested in pre-K - 12 are commonly focused on making change or addressing a problem in education. This course explains the context of past and present efforts to improve the quality of education and provides students an opportunity to test their own reform thinking against past experience. This course is foundational for students interested in PK-12 education. It provides a broad theoretical, historical, and sociological perspective on how the American school system works, treating historical efforts at school reform as experimental interventions that reveal the system's nature and functions.
EDUC 230 Learning Experience Design (K. Forssell) (3) (PK12, ET, HE)
This course explores the design of tools for learning, leveraging scholarship and real-world projects to create prototypes of new digital learning tools. A Cardinal Course. In this course, students will use design activities to facilitate the creation of impactful learning experiences for learners different from themselves, while focusing on the possibilities presented by digital technologies.  Students will engage in a variety of design activities to come up with new learning tools for community partners. Designing these tools will require project groups to gather and apply knowledge, evaluating options and synthesizing ideas in order to create an effective (and elegant!) solution.
EDUC 250 What Do Students Really Know? The Risks of Modern Assessment (M. Ruiz-Primo) (3) (PK12 EP)
This course focuses on helping students to advance their knowledge about theory, design and research issues related to assessing student learning for accountability and learning purposes. The course explores assessment topics with a critical perspective in two contexts: large-scale and classroom assessment. The course will help students become critical test consumers, better-informed assessment evaluators, and advocator of reliable, valid and fair assessments for culturally and linguistically diverse populations.
EDUC 265 History of Higher Education in the U.S. (M. Stevens) (3-5) (HE, EP)
This course emphasizes an understanding of contemporary configurations of higher education through studying its antecedents. EDUC 355 Higher Education & Society, and this course are strong complements for one another. This course is foundational for students interested in higher education. It provides a broad theoretical, historical, and sociological perspective on what is distinctive about the American system of higher education and how the system works. 
EDUC 337 Race, Ethnicity, and Linguistic Diversity in Classrooms: Sociocultural Theory and Practices (A. Ball) (3-5) (PK12)
Focus is on classrooms with students from diverse racial, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. Studies, writing, and media representation of urban and diverse school settings; implications for transforming teaching and learning. Issues related to developing teachers with attitudes, dispositions, and skills necessary to teach diverse students.
EDUC 363 Stress Reactivity and Biological Sensitivity to Context (J. Obradovic) (3-4) (PK12)
This class is designed to introduce students to two biological system: the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis' that help children respond to and cope with daily challenges, stressors, and adversities. We will examine: (1) how the ANS and HPA systems respond to daily stressors, as well as experiences of poverty, maltreatment, and neglect; (2) how different indices of stress reactivity independently and jointly relate to various domains of competence and psychopathology; and (3) how stress reactivity moderates contextual influences on children's adaptation.
EDUC 460 Language, Culture, Cognition, and Assessment (G. Solano-Flores) (3) (PK12, EP)
Examines the intersection of language, culture, and cognition, and the implications of this intersection in educational assessment. Knowledge from different disciplines is used to reason about assessment from the conceptual, methodological, and social perspectives. 
GSBGEN 367/EDUC 377G Problem Solving for Social Change (P. Brest) (3) (PK12, HE, EP, NP)
Stanford graduates will play important roles in solving many of today's and tomorrow's major societal problems -- such as improving educational and health outcomes, conserving energy, and reducing global poverty -- which call for actions by nonprofit, business, and hybrid organizations as well as governments. This course teaches skills and bodies of knowledge relevant to these roles through problems and case studies drawn from nonprofit organizations, for-profit social enterprises, and governments. Topics include designing, implementing, scaling, and evaluating social strategies; systems thinking; decision making under risk; psychological biases that adversely affect people's decisions; methods for influencing individuals' and organizations' behavior, ranging from incentives and penalties to "nudges;" human-centered design; corporate social responsibility; and pay-for-success programs. We will apply these concepts and tools to address an actual social problem facing Stanford University. (With the exception of several classes on strategy and evaluation, there is no substantial overlap with Paul Brest’s and Mark Wolfson’s course, Strategic Philanthropy and Impact Investing (GSBGEN 319), which has a different focus from this one.)
STRAMGT 335/EDUC 445 Entrepreneurial Approaches to Education Reform (G. Lee) (3) (PK12, NP)
In this course, students will investigate opportunities and challenges of entrepreneurial ventures trying to make a positive impact in public education. The course requires a basic level of understanding of the U.S. K-12 public school system. The first session will analyze the structure of the public education as an industry, with a special emphasis on understanding the achievement gap. Subsequent sessions will explore challenges in increasing efficacy, ensuring financial sustainability, and scaling for entrepreneurs who have sought to change student outcomes, solve pain points, and innovate. The course will feature a variety of ventures (including schools, education technology, training, and supplemental services) and organizational models (for-profit, not-for-profit, and benefit corporation). This course is suitable for students aspiring to be entrepreneurs, leaders in entrepreneurial organizations, leaders in educational organizations, Board members, donors or investors. (Note: this is not a "how-to" course on starting an entrepreneurial venture.) 
STRAMGT 537/EDUC 447 Leading Change in Public Education (D. Katzir) (2) (PK12, NP)
Public education in America is at a crossroads. Does our education system have what it takes to produce graduates who are prepared for college, career, and citizenship in our increasingly digital and pluralistic world? Will income and ethnic achievement gaps continue to be pervasive and persistent in our nation’s largest urban cities? Will family zip code determine educational destiny for the next generation of students? Which strategies and reforms are truly demonstrating results and which are merely passing fads? As in all large-scale enterprises undergoing rapid, transformative change, leadership matters greatly. Fortunately, over the last decade, the reform of American public education has been led by a number of innovative and results-oriented leaders at the state, district and charter levels. These leaders are bringing additional urgency, strategies, and ideas designed to prepare America's schools and students for the century ahead. Some ideas are proving to be critical levers for change, others are facing significant political challenges, and others have not delivered on expected results. Many of them hold lessons for how future educational leaders can contribute to transforming public education for the next generation of K-12 students. This course will focus on school system leadership for education reform. The course will provide an overview of the critical issues facing K-12 public education in America today, and what is going on across the U.S. during this transformative period of change. Once this context is set, students will study education leaders and systems change strategies from the last 10-15 years at the state, district and charter levels. We will focus on leaders across five domains: Leadership in crisis situations, strategic leadership, “china-breaking” leadership, sustaining leadership, and next generation leadership. We will also look at leadership examples from outside K-12 education to broaden our thinking about what leadership styles and strategies could be successfully applied to education. Students will debate the strategies and efficacy of how different leaders approached systems-level change and will form their own working hypotheses of what is needed to help transform the American education system. Case studies in school system leadership will form the primary basis for classroom assignments and discussion. We will examine what went right and what went wrong in each case, focusing particularly on the decisions that school system leaders faced and the implications of their decisions. Most cases will be supplemented with research publications, technical notes, news clips, and/or videos to deepen students¿ understanding of the context or issues discussed in the cases. Dan Katzir worked for Bain & Company, Teach for America, Sylvan Learning Systems and the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation before joining Alliance College-Ready Public Schools as its CEO in 2015. He is an experienced case study teacher and the editor of The Redesign of Urban School Systems: Case Studies in District Governance

Theory 

EDUC 204 Introduction to Philosophy of Education (E. Callan) (3) (PK12, HE, EP, ET)
How to think philosophically about educational problems. Recent influential scholarship in philosophy of education. No previous study in philosophy required.  
EDUC 232 Culture, Learning, and Poverty (R. McDermott) (2-3) (PK12)
For students interested in learning about the actual process of policy making, this course offers a behind-the-scenes look at the political process of public policy making at the Federal level. Students will learn about the theory and literature behind policy formulation and will engage in debates over past and current efforts at policy reform.
EDUC 249 Theory & Issues in Bilingualism (G. Valdes) (3-5) (PK12)
For those interested in working with bilingual students and their families and/or carrying out research in bilingual settings, this course emphasizes the typologies of bilingualism, the acquisition of bilingual ability, and the nature of societal bilingualism. 
EDUC 256 Psychological and Educational Resilience Among Children and Youth (R. Lizcano, A. Padilla) (4) (PK12, EP)
This course is aimed at students interested in individual, family, school, and community risk and protective factors that influence children's development and adaptation. Adaptive systems that enable some children to achieve successful resilience despite high levels of adversity exposure are emphasized. Theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues are examined, including current technology and conceptual and measurement issues.
EDUC 275 Leading U.S. Schools (D. Brazer) (3-4) (PK12, EP, NP)
The landscape of schooling in the U.S. is dynamic and replete with ideologies, myths, and beliefs. Organizational theory, leadership theory, and empirical research are lenses through which students will develop a deeper and broader understanding of the similarities and differences among private schools, parochial schools, traditional K-12 schools, charter schools, and alternative schools. Students will connect theory and research to practice by visiting and learning about two or more schools of their choosing. 
EDUC 306D World, Societal, and Educational Change: Comparative Perspectives (F. Ramirez) (4-5) (PK12, HE, EP)
Theoretical perspectives and empirical studies on the structural and cultural sources of educational expansion and differentiation, and on the cultural and structural consequences of educational institutionalization. Research topics: education and nation building; education, mobility and equality; international organizations, and world culture.
EDUC 333A Understanding Learning Environments (S. Goldman, R. McDermott, D. Stringer) (3) (PK12, EP, ET)
This course uses theoretical approaches to learning to analyze learning environments and develop goals for designing resources and activities to support effective learning practices.
EDUC 337 Race, Ethnicity, and Linguistic Diversity in Classrooms: Sociocultural Theory and Practices (A. Ball) (3-5) (PK12)
Focus is on classrooms with students from diverse racial, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. Studies, writing, and media representation of urban and diverse school settings; implications for transforming teaching and learning. Issues related to developing teachers with attitudes, dispositions, and skills necessary to teach diverse students.
EDUC 363 Stress Reactivity and Biological Sensitivity to Context (J. Obradovic) (3-4) (PK12)
This class is designed to introduce students to two biological system: the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis' that help children respond to and cope with daily challenges, stressors, and adversities. We will examine: (1) how the ANS and HPA systems respond to daily stressors, as well as experiences of poverty, maltreatment, and neglect; (2) how different indices of stress reactivity independently and jointly relate to various domains of competence and psychopathology; and (3) how stress reactivity moderates contextual influences on children's adaptation.
EDUC 367 Cultural Psychology (T. LaFromboise) (3-5) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
The relationship between culture and psychological processes; how culture becomes an integral part of cognitive, social, and moral development. Both historical and contemporary treatments of cultural psychology, including deficit models, crosscultural psychology, ecological niches, culturally specific versus universal development, sociocultural frameworks, and minority child development. The role of race and power in research on cultural psychology.
EDUC 414 Play and Games (D. McFarland) (3-4) (PK12, HE, EP, NP) 
Social life would be unimaginable without play and games. Students will be introduced to social theories of play and games; the history of games and their variation; readings concerned with how play and games affect interaction and socialization; how race and gender are enacted in and through play and games; how play and games relate to creativity and innovation; and how games can be designed for engrossment and the accomplishment of various tasks and learning goals. Course intended mainly for doctoral students, though master¿s and undergraduate students are welcome. This is a new course, so please expect collaboration with instructor and other students to shape the course content.
EDUC 417 Research and Policy on Postsecondary Access (A. Antonio) (3) (HE, EP, NP) 
The transition from high school to college. K-16 course focusing on high school preparation, college choice, remediation, pathways to college, and first-year adjustment. The role of educational policy in postsecondary access. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). 
EDUC 426 Maximizing Personal Potential: Behavioral Science and Design Thinking Applied to Self (R. Bhargava, G. Cohen) (2-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP, ET)
This experimental course facilitates the application of the methods, theories, and findings of behavioral science to students own lives and improvement projects. It does so by combining behavioral science with a design thinking approach. You will learn to identify your potential, navigate to achieve it, and stay resilient during the journey. Students will design their own action plans, define goals and prototype strategies to test them, in an iterative feedback cycle. Our course thus blends two intellectual streams that seldom intersect: behavioral science and design thinking.
PUBLPOL 307 Justice (R. Reich) (4-5) (PK12, HE, NP)
Focus is on the ideal of a just society, and the place of liberty and equality in it, in light of contemporary theories of justice and political controversies. Topics include financing schools and elections, regulating markets, discriminating against people with disabilities, and enforcing sexual morality.

Skills 

EDUC 200A Introduction to Data Analysis and Interpretation (A. Porteus) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
This course teaches students to read and critically interpret quantitative published research. The course is conceptual rather than formula driven.  It requires no advanced math or prior statistics.  It develops skills central to reading and understanding research.
EDUC 200B Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods (D. Pope, J. Wolf) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
Primarily for master's students: An introduction to the core concepts and methods of qualitative research. Through a variety of hands-on learning activities, readings, field experiences, class lectures, and discussions, students will explore the processes and products of qualitative inquiry. Course material and hands-on activities are likely to be directly applicable to the POLS Project/Talk.
EDUC 230 Learning Experience Design (K. Forssell) (3) (PK12, ET, HE)
This course explores the design of tools for learning, leveraging scholarship and real-world projects to create prototypes of new digital learning tools. A Cardinal Course. In this course, students will use design activities to facilitate the creation of impactful learning experiences for learners different from themselves, while focusing on the possibilities presented by digital technologies.  Students will engage in a variety of design activities to come up with new learning tools for community partners. Designing these tools will require project groups to gather and apply knowledge, evaluating options and synthesizing ideas in order to create an effective (and elegant!) solution.
EDUC 281 Technology for Learners (K. Forssell) (3-4) (ET)
For those interested in the use of technology in education and how it may be used to improve learning. This course explores how technology may help make learning easier, faster, or accessible to more learners and considers a variety of different approaches to designing tools for learning, the theories behind them, and the research that tests their effectiveness. Topics include feedback, visualization, games, multimedia, tangible-digital interfaces, simulations, and more. Students will work on teams to identify a need, create a prototype, and design tests to understand its impact. Space is limited.
EDUC 295 Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the Education Technology Sector (S. Monsalve) (2-3) (PK12, HE, NP, ET)
How do entrepreneurs, educators and VC¿s evaluate and grow successful edtech startups? Why do most startups fail and what are the key ingredients for success? This course will teach you the skills, and strategies necessary to effectively evaluate educational technology startups much like prospective employees, expert educators, entrepreneurs and venture capital investors do. Each week, we will invite an executive or entrepreneur from a successful edtech startup as a guest speaker and we'll evaluate all aspects of their invention. A fundamental question we'll explore in this course is how educators and technologists can collaborate to improve equity, and access to education by leveraging the massive impact technology solutions can provide.
EDUC 426 Maximizing Personal Potential: Behavioral Science and Design Thinking Applied to Self (R. Bhargava, G. Cohen) (2-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP, ET)
This experimental course facilitates the application of the methods, theories, and findings of behavioral science to students own lives and improvement projects. It does so by combining behavioral science with a design thinking approach. You will learn to identify your potential, navigate to achieve it, and stay resilient during the journey. Students will design their own action plans, define goals and prototype strategies to test them, in an iterative feedback cycle. Our course thus blends two intellectual streams that seldom intersect: behavioral science and design thinking.
GSBGEN 367/EDUC 377G Problem Solving for Social Change (P. Brest) (3) (PK12, HE, EP, NP)
Stanford graduates will play important roles in solving many of today's and tomorrow's major societal problems -- such as improving educational and health outcomes, conserving energy, and reducing global poverty -- which call for actions by nonprofit, business, and hybrid organizations as well as governments. This course teaches skills and bodies of knowledge relevant to these roles through problems and case studies drawn from nonprofit organizations, for-profit social enterprises, and governments. Topics include designing, implementing, scaling, and evaluating social strategies; systems thinking; decision making under risk; psychological biases that adversely affect people's decisions; methods for influencing individuals' and organizations' behavior, ranging from incentives and penalties to "nudges;" human-centered design; corporate social responsibility; and pay-for-success programs. We will apply these concepts and tools to address an actual social problem facing Stanford University. (With the exception of several classes on strategy and evaluation, there is no substantial overlap with Paul Brest’s and Mark Wolfson’s course, Strategic Philanthropy and Impact Investing (GSBGEN 319), which has a different focus from this one.)
GSBGEN 381/EDUC 377C Philanthropy: Strategy, Innovation and Social Change (L. Arrillaga) (3) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
You have extraordinary potential to create social change, and Philanthropy: Strategy, Innovation and Social Change will empower you with the skills, experience and inspiration to actualize that potential. Regardless of your profession, industry, background, age, resource form or amount, this course will amplify your ability to make your giving, volunteering, service and leadership matter more. Through deep introspection you will develop your individual social change strategy and define and/or refine your social passions and philanthropic purpose. You will develop and apply skills essential to effective philanthropy, including creating a mission statement, mapping a social issue ecosystem, developing a philanthropic strategy and mitigating risk. You will create a theory of change that maps how you will transform your values and resources (including intellectual, human, network and financial capital) into measurable social change. You will also create a logic model, assess nonprofits and grant proposals, evaluate nonprofit programs and social change initiatives and develop strategies to share learning and increase impact. Case studies will illuminate diverse philanthropic models and approaches—private foundations, corporate giving vehicles, venture philanthropy and LLCs, as well as policy change, advocacy and impact investing. Class activities will include role-plays, debates and simulations such as creating personal giving strategies, exploring the power dynamics of grantor-grantee relationships, giving funding pitches and assessing foundation grant proposals. Each student will select and evaluate a local nonprofit and create a formal grant proposal. Students will peer-review grant proposals, participate in a multi-stage grantmaking process and allocate $20,000 of grants funded by The Learning by Giving Foundation and Andreessen Philanthropies. Students will also have the unique opportunity to directly connect and engage with globally renowned philanthropic leaders, including Laura Muñoz Arnold (Arnold Foundation), Dr. Priscilla Chan (Chan Zuckerberg Initiative), Dr. Sandra Hernández (California Health Care Foundation), Laurene Powell Jobs (Emerson Collective), Dr. Alex Karp (Palantir), Dr. Judith Rodin (Rockefeller Foundation) and Darren Walker (Ford Foundation), among others 
PSYCH 147 Development in Early Childhood (M. Peters, B. Wise) (3-5) (PK12, NP)
Supervised experience with young children at Bing Nursery School. 3 units require 4 hours per week in Bing classrooms throughout the quarter; 4 units require 7 hours per week; 5 units require 10.5 hours per week. Seminar on developmental issues in the Bing teaching/learning environment. Recommended: 60 or 146, or consent of instructor.

Knowledge 

EDUC 171 Preschool Counts: Engaging Young Children in Math (D. Stipek) (1-3) (PK12)
Restricted to students who participate in a service learning program focused on early math learning. Training for activities in preschool classrooms. Focus is on the teaching of math to young children, but also includes background on issues related to young children's cognitive, language, and social development; classroom management; cultural diversity; and early childhood education programs. May be repeated for credit.
EDUC 221A Policy Analysis in Education (C. Mercer) (PK12, HE, EP)
Major concepts associated with the development, enactment, and execution of educational policy. Issues of policy implementation, agenda setting and problem formulation, politics, and intergovernmental relations. Case studies. Goal is to identify factors that affect how analysts and policy makers learn about and influence education.
EDUC 306A Economics of Education in the Global Economy (M. Carnoy) (5) (PK12, EP) 
In today's educational policy environment, a working knowledge of the economics of education is fundamental for anyone involved in educational policy and educational practice. Education 306A is a survey course, covering issues from the relation of schooling, to economic outcomes, to the analysis of how schooling and students' family backgrounds influence student performance in schools, to analyses of teacher labor markets (including issues such as teacher incentive pay). The course also covers education "markets" and discusses educational finance at the K-12 and university levels.
EDUC 346 Research Seminar in Higher Education (W. Damon, M. Stevens) (4) (HE)
Major issues, current structural features of the system, the historical context that shaped it, and theoretical frameworks. The purposes of higher education in light of interest groups including students, faculty, administrators, and external constituents. Issues such as diversity, stratification, decentralization, and changes that cut across these groups.
EDUC 347/GSBGEN 348 The Economics of Higher Education (E. Bettinger) (4) (HE)
Topics: the worth of college and graduate degrees, and the utilization of highly educated graduates; faculty labor markets, careers, and workload; costs and pricing; discounting, merit aid, and access to higher education; sponsored research; academic medical centers; and technology and productivity. Emphasis is on theoretical frameworks, policy matters, and the concept of higher education as a public good. Stratification by gender, race, and social class. 
EDUC 349 Comparative Higher Education (F. Ramirez) (3-4) (HE) 
This course examines the expansion, impact, and organization of higher education across the world. This course engages students with sociological theory and comparative research that focus on the factors that influence the expansion of universities, the individual and societal impacts of higher education, and change and persistence in the organization of the university. Lastly, this course emphasizes the impact of globalization on universities. 
EDUC 354 School-Based Decision Making (G. Hoagland) (4) (PK12, NP) 
Designed with aspiring school leaders in mind, this course combines case studies, site visits, and guest speakers to take students inside school leaders' critical decision making processes. Students who wish to work at the district and school levels may be interested in this course to learn the challenges, opportunities, and contemporary practices of school-site leadership.
GSBGEN 345/EDUC 377F Disruptions in Education (R. Urstein) (3) (HE)
This course will explore the contemporary higher education industry, focusing especially on the places where disruptions of all kinds present significant opportunities and challenges for investors, entrepreneurs, and the businesses that serve this huge global market, as well as for faculty, students, and higher education administrators. Using a variety of readings and case studies to better understand recent disruptions and the unbundling occurring across the post-secondary landscape, from outside and inside the academy, both for-profit and non-profit, the course will examine technology in teaching and learning; the future of the degree and alternatives to the traditional credential; accreditation; competency based education; debt and education financing models; investing in the education space; and tertiary products and platforms that serve the student services market. Guests will include higher education leaders and practitioners, as well as investors and entrepreneurs
MS&E 274 Dynamic Entrepreneurial Strategy (E. Tse) (3) (NP, ET) 
This course explores how entrepreneurial strategy focuses on creating structural change of responding to change induced externally. Students will learn about advantage in emerging markets and mature markets, strategies to break through stagnation, and strategies to turn danger into opportunity. 
STRAMGT 368/EDUC 377B Strategic Management of Nonprofit Organizations and Social Ventures (B. Meehan) (3) (PK12, HE, NP)
This course seeks to provide a survey of the strategic, governance, and management issues facing a wide range of nonprofit organizations and their executive and board leaders, in the era of venture philanthropy and social entrepreneurship. The students will also be introduced to core managerial issues uniquely defined by this sector such as development/fundraising, investment management, performance management and nonprofit finance. The course also provides an overview of the sector, including its history and economics. Cases involve a range of nonprofits, from smaller, social entrepreneurial to larger, more traditional organizations, including education, social service, environment, health care, religion, NGO's and performing arts. In exploring these issues, this course reinforces the frameworks and concepts of strategic management introduced in the core first year courses. In addition to case discussions, the course employs role plays, study group exercises and many outsider speakers

Theory 

EDUC 122Q Democracy in Crisis: Learning from the Past (T. Ehrlich) (3) (PK12, HE, EP, NP)
This Sophomore Seminar will focus on U.S. democracy and will use a series of case studies of major events in our national history to explore what happened and why to American democracy at key pressure points. This historical exploration should shed light on how the current challenges facing American democracy might best be handled. (Cardinal Course certified by the Haas Center).
EDUC 208B Curriculum Construction (D. Pope) (3-4) (PK12)
Practical aspects of curriculum design are emphasized by students working on projects for actual education clients. May be adapted to issues in higher education.
EDUC 245 Understanding Racial and Ethnic Identity Development (T. LaFromboise) (3-5) (PK12)
This seminar will explore the impact and relative salience of racial/ethnic identity on select issues including: discrimination, social justice, mental health and academic performance. Theoretical perspectives on identity development will be reviewed, along with research on other social identity variables, such as social class, gender and regional identifications. New areas within this field such as the complexity of multiracial identity status and intersectional invisibility will also be discussed. Though the class will be rooted in psychology and psychological models of identity formation, no prior exposure to psychology is assumed and other disciplines-including cultural studies, feminist studies, and literature-will be incorporated into the course materials.
EDUC 220C Education and Society (F. Ramirez) (4-5) (PK12, HE, EP)
Theories and perspectives from the social sciences relevant to the role of education in changing, modifying, or reproducing structures of gender differentiation and The effects of schools and schooling on individuals, the stratification system, and society. Education as socializing individuals and as legitimizing social institutions. The social and individual factors affecting the expansion of schooling, individual educational attainment, and the organizational structure of schooling.
EDUC 288 Organizational Analysis (W. Powell) (4) (PK12, HE, EP, NP)
Pre-K - 12, higher education, and non-profit focused students should take this survey of major theoretical traditions to understand rational and non-rational behaviors of organizations. This knowledge can be applied to schools, districts, CMOs, colleges, universities, and non-profits as formal organizations. 
EDUC 341 Counterstory and Narrative Inquiry in Literature and Education (A. Antonio, J. Willihnganz) (3) (PK12, HE, EP)
Counterstory is a method developed in critical legal studies that emerges out of the broad "narrative turn" in the humanities and social science. This course explores the value of this turn, especially for marginalized communities, and the use of counterstory as analysis, critique, and self-expression. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we examine counterstory as it has developed in critical theory, critical pedagogy, and critical race theory literatures, and explore it as a framework for liberation, cultural work, and spiritual exploration.
EDUC 342 Child Development & New Technologies (B. Barron, K. Forssell) (3) (PK12)
This course is for students interested in the experiences of children with computing technologies and how these might influence development. The course uses sociocultural theories of development to understand how children use technology to meet their own goals, with an emphasis on the influence of interactive technology on cognitive, identity, and social development. 
EDUC 347/GSBGEN 348 The Economics of Higher Education (E. Bettinger) (4) (HE)
Topics: the worth of college and graduate degrees, and the utilization of highly educated graduates; faculty labor markets, careers, and workload; costs and pricing; discounting, merit aid, and access to higher education; sponsored research; academic medical centers; and technology and productivity. Emphasis is on theoretical frameworks, policy matters, and the concept of higher education as a public good. Stratification by gender, race, and social class. 
EDUC 359E Research on Mathematics Education (J. Boaler) (2-4) (PK12, EP)
Comparative and cultural perspectives on mathematics teaching and learning practices in the U.S. mathematics education in the context of cultural and educational systems. Teaching and learning as an interactive system, classroom discourse and math talk, teacher professional development, classroom culture and norms, educational equity, and issues of curriculum and standards.
EDUC 371 Social Psychology and Social Change (G. Cohen) (23) (PK12, HE, NP, ET)
The course is intended as an exploration of the major ideas, theories, and findings of social psychology and their applied status. Special attention will be given to historical issues, classic experiments, and seminal theories, and their implications for topics relevant to education. Contemporary research will also be discussed. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students from other disciplines are welcome, but priority for enrollment will be given to graduate students. In order to foster a vibrant, discussion-based class, enrollment will be capped at 20 students. Interested students should enroll in the class through simple enroll or axess, and complete this survey ( https://tinyurl.com/SPSC17) to be considered for admission to the course. Please contact the course TA, Michael Schwalbe (schwalbe[at]stanford.edu), if you have any further questions.
EDUC 378 Social and Emotional Learning: Conceptual & Measurement Issues (J. Obradovic) (3) (PK12)
Social and emotional learning (SEL) is an umbrella term for the malleable, non-academic skills that support educational outcomes, such as school readiness, classroom behaviors, and academic achievement. In this course, we will discuss theoretical frameworks, empirical studies, and measurement issues pertaining to the intrapersonal SEL skills: self-control/executive functions, emotion regulation, intrinsic motivation, persistence, and growth mindset. We will also discuss school districts’ efforts to promote and assesses students' SEL skills.
PSYCH 146 Observation of Children (P. Chandra, A. Lomangino, J. Winters) (3-5) (PK12)
Learning about children through guided observations at Bing Nursery School, Psychology's lab for research and training in child development. Physical, emotional, social, cognitive, and language development. Recommended: 60.

Skills 

EDUC 200B Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods (D. Pope, J. Wolf) (4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
Students who are confident in their ability to read and understand published research (particularly quantitative) should take this course to broaden their understanding of research methods and uses. Course material and hands-on activities are likely to be directly applicable to the POLS Project/Talk.
EDUC 208B Curriculum Construction (D. Pope) (3-4) (PK12)
Practical aspects of curriculum design are emphasized by students working on projects for actual education clients. May be adapted to issues in higher education.
EDUC 399A Designing Surveys (A. Porteus) (1-2) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
This course is focused entirely on developing good surveys using a cognitive processing model for survey development. The course  is for students who are designing surveys  for master’s projects/theses, and PhD dissertations.  The course is experiential and more like a workshop, so students must be developing an actual survey to enroll in the course.
EDUC 423 Introduction to Data Science (D. McFarland) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
Social scientists can benefit greatly from utilizing new data sources like electronic administration records or digital communications, but they require tools and techniques to make sense of their scope and complexity. This course offers the opportunity to understand and apply popular data science techniques regarding data visualization, data reduction and data analysis.
MS&E 277 Creativity and Innovation (R. Cox.) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, ET)
This course is for students who want to gain experience with promoting creativity and innovation using workshops, case studies, field trips, expert guests, and team projects.e
PSYCH 146 Observation of Children (P. Chandra, A. Lomangino, J. Winters) (3-5) (PK12)
Learning about children through guided observations at Bing Nursery School, Psychology's lab for research and training in child development. Physical, emotional, social, cognitive, and language development. Recommended: 60.
PSYCH 147 Development in Early Childhood (M. Peters, B. Wise) (3-5) (PK12, NP)
Supervised experience with young children at Bing Nursery School. 3 units require 4 hours per week in Bing classrooms throughout the quarter; 4 units require 7 hours per week; 5 units require 10.5 hours per week. Seminar on developmental issues in the Bing teaching/learning environment. Recommended: 60 or 146, or consent of instructor.

Knowledge

EDUC 171 Preschool Counts: Engaging Young Children in Math (D. Stipek) (1-3) (PK12)
Restricted to students who participate in a service learning program focused on early math learning. Training for activities in preschool classrooms. Focus is on the teaching of math to young children, but also includes background on issues related to young children's cognitive, language, and social development; classroom management; cultural diversity; and early childhood education programs. May be repeated for credit.
EDUC 217 Free Speech, Academic Freedom, and Democracy (E. Callan) (3)
The course examines connected ideas of free speech, academic freedom, and democratic legitimacy that are still widely shared by many of us but have been subject to skeptical pressures both outside and inside the academy in recent years. The course explores the principled basis of these ideas, how well they might (or might not) be defended against skeptical challenge, and how they might be applied in particular controversies about the rights of students, instructors, and researchers.
EDUC 218 Topics in Cognition and Learning: Technology and Multitasking (B. McCandliss, R. Pea) (3) (PK12, NP)
Executive function is a construct that is rapidly taking on an increasingly central role in bringing together current research in cognitive development, learning, education, and neuroscience. In this seminar we will examine the potential cross-fertilization of these fields of inquiry primarily by reviewing research on learning and individual differences in cognitive neuroscience that may hold relevance to education, as well as reviewing educational research that may hold implications for developmental cognitive neuroscience. This seminar course is designed to engage students in recent advances in this rapidly growing research area via discussions of both historical and late-breaking findings in the literature. By drawing on a breadth of studies ranging from cognitive development, cognitive neuroscience, and educational/training studies, students will gain an appreciation for specific ways interdisciplinary approaches can add value to specific programs of research.
EDUC 306B The Politics of International Cooperation in Education (P. Bromley) (3-5) (PK12, HE, EP)
Education policy, politics, and development. Topics include: politics, interests, institutions, polity, and civil society; how schools and school systems operate as political systems; how policy making occurs in educational systems; and theories of development. 
EDUC 355 Higher Education and Society (M. Stevens) (3) (HE, EP)
For undergraduates and graduate students interested in what colleges and universities do, and what society expects of them. The relationship between higher education and society in the U.S. from a sociological perspective. The nature of reform and conflict in colleges and universities, and tensions in the design of higher education systems and organizations.
EDUC 386 Leadership and Administration in Higher Education (J. Calvert, W. Chiang) (4) (HE, EP)
Definitions of leadership and leadership roles within colleges and universities. Leadership models and organizational concepts. Case study analysis of the problems and challenges facing today's higher education administrators.  
MS&E 254 The Ethical Analyst (R. Howard) (1-3) (EP)
This course is aimed at students who wish to be professional analysis. Students will learn about the ethical responsibility for consequences of analysis who used technical knowledge to support organizations or government. The course explores how to form ethical judgments and questions the means to any end. 

Theory 

EDUC 314 Technologies, Social Justice, and Black Vernacular Culture (A. Banks) (3-5) (PK12, HE)
From texts to techne, from artifacts to discourses on science and technology, this course is an examination of how Black people in this society have engaged with the mutually consitutive relationships that endure between humans and technologies. We will focus on these engagements in vernacular cultural spaces, from storytelling traditions to music and move to ways academic and aesthetic movements have imagined these relationships. Finally, we will consider the implications for work with technologies in both school and community contexts for work in the pursuit of social and racial justice. Course is open to master's and doctoral students only.
EDUC 306B The Politics of International Cooperation in Education (P. Bromley) (3-5) (PK12, HE, EP)
Education policy, politics, and development. Topics include: politics, interests, institutions, polity, and civil society; how schools and school systems operate as political systems; how policy making occurs in educational systems; and theories of development. 
PSYCH 146 Observation of Children (P. Chandra, A. Lomangino, J. Winters) (3-5) (PK12)
Learning about children through guided observations at Bing Nursery School, Psychology's lab for research and training in child development. Physical, emotional, social, cognitive, and language development. Recommended: 60.

Skills

EDUC 278 Introduction to Issues in Evaluation (M. Ruiz-Primo) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
Open to master's and doctoral students with priority to students in the School of Education. Focus is on the basic literature and major theoretical and practical issues in the field of program evaluation. Topics include: defining purpose, obtaining credible evidence, the role of the evaluator, working with stakeholder, values in evaluation, utilization, and professional standards. The course project is to design an evaluation for a complex national or international program selected by the instructor.
EDUC 290 Instructional Leadership: Building Capacity for Excellent Teaching (D. Brazer) (3-4) (PK12)
Designed with aspiring school leaders in mind, this course helps students understand how teacher learning and organizational learning are generated to improve educational quality at the school and district level. Students who wish to work at the district level may be interested in this course to learn a perspective on addressing school improvement.
EDUC 391 Engineering Education and Online Learning (M. Stevens) (3) (HE, ET)
An introduction to best practices in engineering education and educational technology, with a focus on online and blended learning. In addition to gaining a broad understanding of the field, students will experiment with a variety of education technologies, pedagogical techniques, and assessment methods.
CEE 251 Negotiation (S. Christensen) (3) (PK12, HE, NP)
This is an interactive course for students who wish to learn how to prepare for and conduct negotiations, from getting a job to managing conflict to negotiating transactions, all of which can occur in the school setting..
GSBGEN 377/EDUC 377H Diverse Leadership as an Imperative for Impact - Lessons from Education (S. Colby) (3) (PK12, HE, NP)
Our society implicitly prizes a particular approach to leadership - but today's cross-sectoral, impact-oriented leader cannot afford to be restricted to a single approach. If we aspire to address challenges across social, economic, and political arenas, with highly charged moral implications and multiple stakeholders, we have an imperative to use all available tools by discovering, celebrating, and advancing diversity in leadership.Education provides the perfect canvas on which to explore this imperative. In this course, we will: (1) study a range of effective leadership approaches in the context of education; (2) develop broad, transportable skills and frameworks required to lead in any complex setting - business, public sector, nonprofit sector; (3) delve into leadership tradeoffs and tensions; (4) explore and understand our own values and tacit and explicit decision-making criteria; and (5) recognize barriers to diversity and tactics to address them.  Guiding questions will include: How does the context shape the solution set? What does inspired and inspiring leadership look like? How do race/gender/other identities enter into the equation? How do I develop my own brand of leadership? 
 We will examine contemporary leaders and controversies from education, draw upon timeless historical thinkers, enjoy the wisdom of guest speakers, and work intensively in small groups to highlight challenges, opportunities, and tradeoffs. By exploring a range of approaches and situations, we will strive for deeper understanding of ourselves and of the context to become more capable, empathetic and effective leaders
MED 247 Methods in Community Assessment, Evaluation, and Research (M. Kiernan, M. Stefanick) (3) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
While not specifically focused on educational research, this course is designed for students who would like to develop their skills in designing, implementing, and analyzing structured interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and field observations.
OB 372 High-Performance Leadership (S. Levine) (4) (PK12, HE, NP)
This course asks the question: "What does it take to build high-performance?" The focus is on middle and upper-middle management in contemporary organizations that have complex tasks, exist in a rapidly changing environment, and have highly skilled subordinates. The premise of the course is that traditional methods of management may produce adequate levels of performance but prevent excellence from developing. New approaches to leadership will be presented that are more likely to lead to a truly high-performing system. Time will be spent discussing the components of effective leadership, what a manager can do to build a compelling vision, strong teams, and mutual influence sideways and upwards as well as with direct reports. Also, what members can do to support the leader who wants to initiate such changes. In addition to class, students will meet for 2 1/2 hours each week in a Skill Development Group to apply the course material to their own personal development. (While there is minimal overlap in content between OB 372 and OB 374 and these two classes are highly complementary, both require Journals and an evening group. We recommend against taking both classes in the same quarter for workload reasons.) Students will have a choice as to when their SDG will meet. The expectation is full attendance at all SDG meetings. Only one excused class absence. Attendance is required in EIS Simulation and the Consulting Project classes.
PSYCH 146 Observation of Children (P. Chandra, A. Lomangino, J. Winters) (3-5) (PK12)
Learning about children through guided observations at Bing Nursery School, Psychology's lab for research and training in child development. Physical, emotional, social, cognitive, and language development. Recommended: 60.
PSYCH 147 Development in Early Childhood (M. Peters, B. Wise) (3-5) (PK12, NP)
Supervised experience with young children at Bing Nursery School. 3 units require 4 hours per week in Bing classrooms throughout the quarter; 4 units require 7 hours per week; 5 units require 10.5 hours per week. Seminar on developmental issues in the Bing teaching/learning environment. Recommended: 60 or 146, or consent of instructor.

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