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Cluster Courses

Students are required to take a minimum of two courses in each of the three thematic clusters of Knowledge, Theory, and Skills as they develop balanced perspectives on leadership in education. Below the description of the thematic clusters are lists of courses that satisfy each cluster requirement. Beyond the six required thematic cluster courses, POLS students may take electives within the Graduate School of Education and throughout Stanford. For information on courses offered at Stanford University, please visit Explore Courses. For program requirements pertaining to the current cohort of students, please see the MA Handbook.

Knowledge - 2 courses minimum

Growing as a leader begins with an understanding of the purposes, policies, practices, and challenges of organizations focused on education. Leadership knowledge ranges from the relationships of schools and districts to local, state, and federal governments; to education technology entrepreneurship; to the evolving role of higher education in society. The well-prepared education leader has knowledge of the education landscape that is both broad and deep.

Theory - 2 courses minimum

Leaders need frameworks and perspectives that help them to understand the complex organizations they presume to lead. Learning theory helps the prospective leader to make sense of confusing situations, conflicting goals, and puzzling outcomes. Learning a broad range of theory related to leading education organizations allows students to develop a personalized framework for addressing complex challenges.

Skills - 2 courses minimum

Students apply their leadership knowledge and understanding of leadership theory in courses that focus on leadership skills. The POLS program is enhanced by these opportunities to connect research and theory to practice. This cluster completes a well-rounded course of study focused on leading a wide range of education organizations.

Courses

Knowledge

 EDUC 213 Introduction to Teaching (H. Borko, E. Szu) (3-4) (PK12, NP, EP)
This introductory course is critically important to those aspiring to work in any pre-K - 12 related setting who have never actually taught. Students with teaching experience are also welcome. Key concepts and practical perspectives on teaching and learning are emphasized. 
 EDUC 217 Free Speech, Academic Freedom, and Democracy (E. Callan) (3) 
The course examines connected ideas of free speech, academic freedom, and democratic legitimacy that are still widely shared by many of us but have been subject to skeptical pressures both outside and inside the academy in recent years. The course explores the principled basis of these ideas, how well they might (or might not) be defended against skeptical challenge, and how they might be applied in particular controversies about the rights of students, instructors, and researchers.
EDUC 220D History of School Reform (D. Labaree) (3-5) (PK12, NP, EP, ET)
POLS students interested in pre-K - 12 are commonly focused on making change or addressing a problem in education. This course explains the context of past and present efforts to improve the quality of education and provides students an opportunity to test their own reform thinking against past experience. This course is foundational for students interested in PK-12 education. It provides a broad theoretical, historical, and sociological perspective on how the American school system works, treating historical efforts at school reform as experimental interventions that reveal the system's nature and functions.
EDUC 266 Educational Neuroscience (B. McCandliss) (3) (PK12, NP)
An introduction to the growing intersection between education research and emerging research on functional brain development. Students will probe the contributions and limitations of emerging theoretical and empirical contribution of neuroscience approaches to specific academic skills such as reading and mathematics, as well as exposure to general processes crucial for educational success, including motivation, attention, and social cognition. Final projects will explore these themes in the service of interventions designed to improve how these functions.
EDUC 306A Economics of Education in the Global Economy (M. Carnoy) (5) (PK12, EP)
In today's educational policy environment, a working knowledge of the economics of education is fundamental for anyone involved in educational policy and educational practice. Education 306A is a survey course, covering issues from the relation of schooling, to economic outcomes, to the analysis of how schooling and students' family backgrounds influence student performance in schools, to analyses of teacher labor markets (including issues such as teacher incentive pay). The course also covers education "markets" and discusses educational finance at the K-12 and university levels.
EDUC 337 Race, Ethnicity, and Linguistic Diversity in Classrooms: Sociocultural Theory and Practices (A. Ball) (3-5) (PK12)
Focus is on classrooms with students from diverse racial, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. Studies, writing, and media representation of urban and diverse school settings; implications for transforming teaching and learning. Issues related to developing teachers with attitudes, dispositions, and skills necessary to teach diverse students.
EDUC 376 Higher Education Leadership Colloquium (M. Stevens) (2-3) (HE)
This course presents a series of speakers from Stanford and other higher education institutions who work at the middle to higher levels of administration. Speakers and topics are guided by student interest, but include a range from student affairs to finance. Sessions are intended to be interactive.
EDUC 460 Language, Culture, Cognition, and Assessment (G. Solano-Flores) (3) (PK12, EP)
Examines the intersection of language, culture, and cognition, and the implications of this intersection in educational assessment. Knowledge from different disciplines is used to reason about assessment from the conceptual, methodological, and social perspectives. 

Theory 

EDUC 204 Introduction to Philosophy of Education (E. Callan) (3) (PK12, HE, EP, ET)
How to think philosophically about educational problems. Recent influential scholarship in philosophy of education. No previous study in philosophy required.  
EDUC 232 Culture, Learning, and Poverty (R. McDermott) (2-3) (PK12)
For students interested in learning about the actual process of policy making, this course offers a behind-the-scenes look at the political process of public policy making at the Federal level. Students will learn about the theory and literature behind policy formulation and will engage in debates over past and current efforts at policy reform.
EDUC 249 Theory & Issues in Bilingualism (G. Valdes) (3-5) (PK12)
For those interested in working with bilingual students and their families and/or carrying out research in bilingual settings, this course emphasizes the typologies of bilingualism, the acquisition of bilingual ability, and the nature of societal bilingualism. 
EDUC 256 Psychological and Educational Resilience Among Children and Youth (R. Lizcano, A. Padilla) (4) (PK12, EP)
This course is aimed at students interested in individual, family, school, and community risk and protective factors that influence children's development and adaptation. Adaptive systems that enable some children to achieve successful resilience despite high levels of adversity exposure are emphasized. Theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues are examined, including current technology and conceptual and measurement issues.
EDUC 275 Leading U.S. Schools (D. Brazer) (3-4) (PK12, EP, NP)
The landscape of schooling in the U.S. is dynamic and replete with ideologies, myths, and beliefs. Organizational theory, leadership theory, and empirical research are lenses through which students will develop a deeper and broader understanding of the similarities and differences among private schools, parochial schools, traditional K-12 schools, charter schools, and alterarnative schools. Students will connect theory and research to practice by visiting and learning about two or more schools of their choosing. 
EDUC 333A Understanding Learning Environments (S. Goldman, R. McDermott, D. Stringer) (3) (PK12, EP, ET)
This course uses theoretical approaches to learning to analyze learning environments and develop goals for designing resources and activities to support effective learning practices.
EDUC 337 Race, Ethnicity, and Linguistic Diversity in Classrooms: Sociocultural Theory and Practices (A. Ball) (3-5) (PK12)
Focus is on classrooms with students from diverse racial, ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. Studies, writing, and media representation of urban and diverse school settings; implications for transforming teaching and learning. Issues related to developing teachers with attitudes, dispositions, and skills necessary to teach diverse students.
EDUC 355 Higher Education and Society (M. Stevens) (3) (HE, EP)
For undergraduates and graduate students interested in what colleges and universities do, and what society expects of them. The relationship between higher education and society in the U.S. from a sociological perspective. The nature of reform and conflict in colleges and universities, and tensions in the design of higher education systems and organizations.
EDUC 417 Research and Policy on Postsecondary Access (A. Antonio) (3) (HE, EP, NP) 
The transition from high school to college. K-16 course focusing on high school preparation, college choice, remediation, pathways to college, and first-year adjustment. The role of educational policy in postsecondary access. Service Learning Course (certified by Haas Center). 
PUBLPOL 307 Justice (R. Reich) (4-5) (PK12, HE, NP)
Focus is on the ideal of a just society, and the place of liberty and equality in it, in light of contemporary theories of justice and political controversies. Topics include financing schools and elections, regulating markets, discriminating against people with disabilities, and enforcing sexual morality.

Skills 

EDUC 200A Introduction to Data Analysis and Interpretation (A. Porteus, C. Thille) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
This course teaches students to read and critically interpret quantitative published research. The course is conceptual rather than formula driven.  It requires no advanced math or prior statistics.  It develops skills central to reading and understanding research.
EDUC 200B Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods (D. Pope, J. Wolf) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
Primarily for master's students: An introduction to the core concepts and methods of qualitative research. Through a variety of hands-on learning activities, readings, field experiences, class lectures, and discussions, students will explore the processes and products of qualitative inquiry. Course material and hands-on activities are likely to be directly applicable to the POLS Project/Talk.
EDUC 242 Workshop on Instrument Development for Assessment, Research of Evaluation Purposes I (M. Ruiz-Primo) (3) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
This course is designed with the belief that collecting information is a routine activity in which most researchers and educators are involved. Developing and improving instruments to gather information for descriptive, assessment, research, or evaluation purposes is a goal that unites all social sciences. Therefore, this course focuses on the technical skills required to develop, judge, and/or select quality instruments in diverse domains. The course will focus on your personal journey to develop or judge an instrument on something that is important for you.
EDUC 269 The Ethics in Teaching (E. Callan) (1) (PK12, HE, EP)
Goal is to prepare for the ethical problems teachers confront in their professional lives. Skills of ethical reasoning, familiarity with ethical concepts, and how to apply these skills and concepts in the analysis of case studies. Topics: ethical responsibility in teaching, freedom of speech and academic freedom, equality and difference, indoctrination, and the teaching of values.
EDUC 281 Technology for Learners (K. Forssell) (3-4) (ET)
For those interested in the use of technology in education and how it may be used to improve learning. This course explores how technology may help make learning easier, faster, or accessible to more learners and considers a variety of different approaches to designing tools for learning, the theories behind them, and the research that tests their effectiveness. Topics include feedback, visualization, games, multimedia, tangible-digital interfaces, simulations, and more. Students will work on teams to identify a need, create a prototype, and design tests to understand its impact. Space is limited.
EDUC 377C/GSBGEN 381 Strategic Philanthropy (L. Arrillaga) (3) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
Appropriate for any student driven to effect positive social change from either the for-profit or nonprofit sector, Strategic Philanthropy ( GSBGEN 381/ EDUC 377C) will challenge students to expand their own strategic thinking about philanthropic aspiration and action. In recent decades, philanthropy has become an industry in itself - amounting to over $300 billion in the year 2012. Additionally, the last decade has seen unprecedented innovation in both philanthropy and social change. This course explores the key operational and strategic distinctions between traditional philanthropic entities, such as community foundations, private foundations, and corporate foundations; and innovative models, including funding intermediaries, open-source platforms, technology-driven philanthropies, and venture philanthropy partnerships. Course work will include readings and case discussions that encourage students to analyze both domestic and global philanthropic strategies as they relate to foundation mission, grant making, evaluation, financial management, infrastructure, knowledge management, policy change, and board governance. Guest speakers will consist of high profile philanthropists, foundation presidents, social entrepreneurs and Silicon Valley business leaders creating new philanthropic models. The course will also provide students with real-world grantmaking experience in completing nonprofit organizational assessments and making grants to organizations totaling $20,000. The course will culminate in an individual project in which students will complete a business plan for a $10 million private foundation.
MS&E 277 Creativity and Innovation (R. Cox) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, ET)
This course is for students who want to gain experience with promoting creativity and innovation using workshops, case studies, field trips, expert guests, and team projects.

Knowledge 

EDUC 212 Urban Education (A. Ball) (3-4) (PK12, NP, EP, ET)
For students who are interested in teaching or leading in urban school settings, this course takes social science and historical perspectives to look at the major developments, contexts, tensions, challenges, and policy issues of urban education.
EDUC 241 Race, Justice, and Integration (E. Callan) (3) (PK12, HE, EP, NP) 
Recent philosophical research on injustice, race, and the ideal of racial integration. 
EDUC 277 Education of Immigrant Students: Psychological Perspectives (A. Padilla) (4) (PK12, EP, NP) 
Historical and contemporary approaches to educating immigrant students. Case study approach focuses on urban centers to demonstrate how stressed urban educational agencies serve immigrants and native-born U.S. students when confronted with overcrowded classrooms, controversy over curriculum, current school reform movements, and government polices regarding equal educational opportunity.
EDUC 280 Learning & Teaching of Science (C. Wieman) (3) (HE)
This course will provide students with a basic knowledge of the relevant research in cognitive psychology and science education and the ability to apply that knowledge to enhance their ability to learn and teach science, particularly at the undergraduate level. Course will involve readings, discussion, and application of the ideas through creation of learning activities. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students with some science background.
EDUC 346 Research Seminar in Higher Education (W. Damon, M. Stevens) (4) (HE)
Major issues, current structural features of the system, the historical context that shaped it, and theoretical frameworks. The purposes of higher education in light of interest groups including students, faculty, administrators, and external constituents. Issues such as diversity, stratification, decentralization, and changes that cut across these groups.
EDUC 347/GSBGEN 348 The Economics of Higher Education (E. Bettinger) (4) (HE) 
Topics: the worth of college and graduate degrees, and the utilization of highly educated graduates; faculty labor markets, careers, and workload: costs and pricing; discounting, merit aid, and access to higher education; sponsored research; academic medical centers; and technology and productivity. Emphasis is on theoretical frameworks, policy matters, and the concept of higher education as a public good. Stratification by gender, race, and social class.
EDUC 354 School-Based Decision Making (G. Hoagland) (4) (PK12, NP) 
Designed with aspiring school leaders in mind, this course combines case studies, site visits, and guest speakers to take students inside school leaders' critical decision making processes. Students who wish to work at the district and school levels may be interested in this course to learn the challenges, opportunities, and contemporary practices of school-site leadership.
EDUC 405 Teaching in the Humanities (J. Wolf) (3) (PK12, HE) 
This course, designed for graduate students in the humanities and education, explores approaches to teaching the humanities at both the secondary and collegiate levels, with a focus on teaching of text, and how the humanities can help students develop the ability to read and think critically. The course explores purposes and pedagogical approaches for teaching humanities through a variety of texts and perspectives. The course is designed as an opportunity for doctoral students in the Humanities both to enrich their own teaching and to broaden their understanding of professional teaching opportunities, including community college and secondary school teaching.
EDUC 411 Early Childhood Education (D. Stipek) (1-4) (PK12, EP, NP)
This course addresses a broad set of topics that have implications for developmentally appropriate and effective early childhood education. It begins with children's social, emotional and cognitive development and issues related to poverty, culture and language. We will also examine research evidence on effective instruction for young children, evaluations of preschool interventions, and several current policy debates. 
EDUC 445/GSBGEN 335 Entrepreneurial Approaches to Education Reform (G. Lee) (3) (PK12, NP)
This course is intended for students interested in how entrepreneurs can and have changed K-12 public schooling, and for those who aspire to be leaders in entrepreneurial and educational organizations. The course explores human capital solutions, new schools, and technology products that are designed to improve student learning and solve pain points. The course will feature for-profit, not-for-profit, and double-bottom-line organizations.
GSBGEN 345 Disruptions in Education (R. Urstein) (3) (HE) 
This course will explore the contemporary higher education industry, focusing especially on the places where disruptions of all kinds present significant opportunities and challenges for faculty, students, and higher education administrators, as well as for entrepreneurs and the businesses that serve this huge global market. Using a variety of readings and case studies to better understand recent disruptions across the higher education landscape, from outside and inside the academy, both for-profit and non-profit, the course will examine technology in teaching and learning; alternatives to the traditional credential; the impact of for-profit providers; content and the ownership and distribution of knowledge; and tertiary products and platforms that cater to the large student services market.
MS&E 274 Dynamic Entrepreneurial Strategy (E. Tse) (3) (NP, ET) 
This course explores how entrepreneurial strategy focuses on creating structural change of responding to change induced externally. Students will learn about advantage in emerging markets and mature markets, strategies to break through stagnation, and strategies to turn danger into opportunity. 

Theory 

EDUC 208B Curriculum Construction (D. Pope) (3-4) (PK12)
Practical aspects of curriculum design are emphasized by students working on projects for actual education clients. May be adapted to issues in higher education.
EDUC 245 Understanding Racial and Ethnic Identity Development (T. LaFromboise) (3-5) (PK12)
This seminar will explore the impact and relative salience of racial/ethnic identity on select issues including: discrimination, social justice, mental health and academic performance. Theoretical perspectives on identity development will be reviewed, along with research on other social identity variables, such as social class, gender and regional identifications. New areas within this field such as the complexity of multiracial identity status and intersectional invisibility will also be discussed. Though the class will be rooted in psychology and psychological models of identity formation, no prior exposure to psychology is assumed and other disciplines-including cultural studies, feminist studies, and literature-will be incorporated into the course materials.
EDUC 280 Learning & Teaching of Science (C. Wieman) (3) (HE)
This course will provide students with a basic knowledge of the relevant research in cognitive psychology and science education and the ability to apply that knowledge to enhance their ability to learn and teach science, particularly at the undergraduate level. Course will involve readings, discussion, and application of the ideas through the creation of learning activities. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students with some science background.
EDUC 288 Organizational Analysis (W. Powell) (4) (PK12, HE, EP, NP)
Pre-K - 12, higher education, and non-profit focused students should take this survey of major theoretical traditions to understand rational and non-rational behaviors of organizations. This knowledge can be applied to schools, districts, CMOs, colleges, universities, and non-profits as formal organizations. 
EDUC 301 Workshop on Race, Ethnicity, and Language in Schools (A. Banks) (1-4) (PK12, EP)
The Workshop on Race, Ethnicity, and Language in Schools is a new School of Education initiative that examines the profound and enduring relationships between race, ethnicity, and language in education in the U.S. and elsewhere. The seminar brings together an inderdisciplinary group of leading scholars and graduate students in language in education to address the role of race and ethnicity in a host of complex and controversial language educational issues that cut across the areas of practice, policy, and pedagogy.
EDUC 306D World, Societal, and Educational Change: Comparative Perspectives (F. Ramirez) (4-5) (PK12, HE, EP)
Theoretical perspectives and empirical studies on the structural and cultural sources of educational expansion and differentiation, and on the cultural and structural consequences of educational institutionalization. Research topics: education and nation building; education, mobility and equality; international organizations, and world culture.
EDUC 312 Relational Sociology (D. McFarland) (4) (PK12, HE, NP)
Conversations, social relationships and social networks are the core features of social life. In this course we explore how conversations, relationships, and social networks not only have their own unique and independent characteristics, but how they shape one another and come to characterize many of the settings we enter and live in. As such, students will be introduced to theories and research methodologies concerning social interaction, social relationships, and social networks, as well as descriptions of how these research strands interrelate to form a larger relational sociology that can be employed to characterize a variety of social phenomenon. This course is suitable to advanced undergraduates and doctoral students. 
EDUC 342 Child Development & New Technologies (B. Barron, K. Forssell) (3) (PK12)
This course is for students interested in the experiences of children with computing technologies and how these might influence development. The course uses sociocultural theories of development to understand how children use technology to meet their own goals, with an emphasis on the influence of interactive technology on cognitive, identity, and social development. 
EDUC 347/GSBGEN 348 The Economics of Higher Education (E. Bettinger) (4) (HE)
Topics: the worth of college and graduate degrees, and the utilization of highly educated graduates; faculty labor markets, careers, and workload; costs and pricing; discounting, merit aid, and access to higher education; sponsored research; academic medical centers; and technology and productivity. Emphasis is on theoretical frameworks, policy matters, and the concept of higher education as a public good. Stratification by gender, race, and social class. 
EDUC 360 Child Development in the Contexts of Risk and Adversity (J. Obradovic) (3-4) (PK12, EP, NP)
In this course students will learn about theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues pertaining to developmental psychopathology and resilience of children and adolescents. The course focuses on (1) current conceptual and empirical issues; (2) cognitive, affective, and motivational processes that underlie some of the most salient childhood mental health symptoms and disorders; (3) family, school, and cultural factors that contribute to developmental psychopathology and resilience; and (4) cutting-edge analytic methods that are currently employed in studies of developmental psychopathology and resilience.

Skills 

EDUC 200B Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods (D. Pope, J. Wolf) (4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
Students who are confident in their ability to read and understand published research (particularly quantitative) should take this course to broaden their understanding of research methods and uses. Course material and hands-on activities are likely to be directly applicable to the POLS Project/Talk.
EDUC 208B Curriculum Construction (D. Pope) (3-4) (PK12)
Practical aspects of curriculum design are emphasized by students working on projects for actual education clients. May be adapted to issues in higher education.
EDUC 280 Learning & Teaching of Science (C. Weiman) (3) (HE)
This course will provide students with a basic knowledge of the relevant research in cognitive psychology and science education and the ability to apply that knowledge to enhance their ability to learn and teach science, particularly at the undergraduate level. Course will involve readings, discussion, and application of the ideas through creation of learning activities. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students with some science background..
EDUC 334A/STRAMGT 360 Strategic Educational Research and Organizational Reform Clinic (W. Koski) (4-10) (PK12, EP, NP)
This is a two-quarter clinical course offered in the Winter and Spring Quarters that brings together upper-level graduate students in education, law, and business from Stanford to collaborate with their peers at other universities (Columbia University, Harvard University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Michigan) and provide strategic research and consulting to public education organizations. Participants engage in a rigorous and rewarding learning experience, including: (i) An intensive seminar in the design, leadership and management, and transformation of public school systems, charter management organizations, start-ups, and other K-12 public- and social-sector institutions; (ii) Comprehensive skills training in team-based problem solving, strategic policy research, managing multidimensional (operational, policy, legal) projects to specified outcomes in complex environments, client counseling, and effective communication; and (iii) A high-priority consulting project for a public education sector client (e.g., school district, state education agency, charter management organization, non-profit) designing and implementing solutions to a complex problem at the core of the organization’s mission to improve the educational outcomes and life chances of children. The participant's team work will allow public agencies throughout the nation to receive relevant, timely, and high-quality research and advice on institutional reforms that otherwise may not receive the attention they deserve. Note: Enrollment in both Winter and Spring quarters is required. MA students must enroll for 4 or 5 units of credit per quarter. 
EDUC 399A Designing Surveys (A. Porteus) (1-2) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
This course is focused entirely on developing good surveys using a cognitive processing model for survey development. The course  is for students who are designing surveys  for master’s projects/theses, and PhD dissertations.  The course is experiential and more like a workshop, so students must be developing an actual survey to enroll in the course.
MS&E 175 Innovation, Creativity & Change (R. Katila) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, ET)
This course explores problem solving in organizations, creativity and innovation skills, thinking tools, and creative organizations.
ME 368 d.Leadership: Design Leadership in Context (P. Klebahn, K. Segovia, R. Sutton, et al.) (1-3) (PK12, HE)
d.Leadership is a course that teaches the coaching and leadership skills needed to drive good design process in groups. d.leaders will work on real projects driving design projects within organizations and gain real world skills as they experiment with their leadership style. Take this course if you are inspired by past design classes and want skills to lead design projects beyond Stanford. Preference given to students who have taken other Design Group or d.school classes. Admission by application. See dschool.stanford.edu/classes for more information
PSYCH 146 Observation of Children (P. Chandra, A. Lomangino, J. Winters) (3-5) (PK12)
Learning about children through guided observations at Bing Nursery School, Psychology's lab for research and training in child development. Physical, emotional, social, cognitive, and language development. Recommended: 60.

Knowledge

EDUC 218 Topics in Cognition and Learning: Technology and Multitasking (B. McCandliss, R. Pea) (3) (PK12, NP)
Executive function is a construct that is rapidly taking on an increasingly central role in bringing together current research in cognitive development, learning, education, and neuroscience. In this seminar we will examine the potential cross-fertilization of these fields of inquiry primarily by reviewing research on learning and individual differences in cognitive neuroscience that may hold relevance to education, as well as reviewing educational research that may hold implications for developmental cognitive neuroscience. This seminar course is designed to engage students in recent advances in this rapidly growing research area via discussions of both historical and late-breaking findings in the literature. By drawing on a breadth of studies ranging from cognitive development, cognitive neuroscience, and educational/training studies, students will gain an appreciation for specific ways interdisciplinary approaches can add value to specific programs of research.
EDUC 265 History of Higher Education in the U.S. (D. Labaree) (3-5) (HE, EP) 
This course emphasizes an understanding of contemporary configurations of higher education through studying its antecedents. EDUC 355 Higher Education & Society, and this course are strong complements for one another. This course is foundational for students interested in higher education. It provides a broad theoretical, historical, and sociological perspective on what is distinctive about the American system of higher education and how the system works. 
EDUC 271/GSBGEN 347 Education Policy in the U.S. (S. Loeb) (3-5) (PK12)
This course will provide students from different disciplines with an understanding of the broad educational policy context. The course will cover topics including a) school finance systems; b) an overview of policies defining and shaping the sectors and institutional forms of schooling; c) an overview of school governance; d) educational human-resource policy; e) school accountability policies at the federal and state levels; and f) school assignment policies and law, including intra- and inter-district choice policies, desegregation law and policy. Many policy discussions will focus on the quality of the quantitative evidence and the underlying applied microeconomic theory. This course is intended for PhD students only. Other students may contact the instructor for permission to enroll. Knowledge of intermediate microeconomics and econometrics would be helpful.
EDUC 306B The Politics of International Cooperation in Education (P. Bromley) (3-5) (EP)
Education policy, politics, and development. Topics include: politics, interests, institutions, polity, and civil society; how schools and school systems operate as political systems; how policy making occurs in educational systems; and theories of development. 
EDUC 349 Comparative Higher Education (F. Ramirez) (3-4) (HE)
This course examines the expansion, impact, and organization of higher education across the world. This course engages students with sociological theory and comparative research that focus on the factors that influence the expansion of universities, the individual and societal impacts of higher education, and change and persistence in the organization of the university. Lastly, this course emphasizes the impact of globalization on universities. 
EDUC 377B Strategic Management of Nonprofit Organizations and Social Ventures (B. Meehan) (4) (PK12, HE, NP) 
Strategic, governance, and management issues facing nonprofit organizations and their leaders in the era of venture philanthropy and social entrepreneurship. Development and fundraising, investment management, performance management, and nonprofit finance. Case studies include smaller, social entrepreneurial and larger, more traditional organizations, including education, social service, health care, religion, NGOs, and performing arts. 
EDUC 386 Leadership and Administration in Higher Education (J. Calvert, W. Chiang) (2) (HE)
Definitions of leadership and leadership roles within colleges and universities. Leadership models and organizational concepts. Case study analysis of the problems and challenges facing today's higher education administrators.  
GSBGEN 370 The Power of You: Women and Leadership (L. Arrillaga) (3) (PK12, HE, NP)
Society needs confident, skilled and agile female professionals at every career level, especially in the earlier stages of their careers, which provide the platform for future leadership opportunities. Female leaders face the same challenges as male leaders do, but female leaders also encounter an additional set of challenges (sociological, institutional, economic, cultural, social, familial, personal, sexual) thaat their male counterparts most likely will not. The same is true for female entrepreneurs, board members, social changemakers, educators and beyond, regardless of their career stage, access and background. Effectively overcoming female-specific challenges requires awareness, confidence and a practical skill-set that will be developed through an academic grounding in research, frameworks and case studies. Students will apply learnings through active participation in in-class discussions and simulations and will directly engage with industry leaders. 
MS&E 152 Introduction to Decision Analysis (R. Shachter) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
This course explores how to make good decisions in a complex, dynamic, and uncertain world. Topics include distinctions, possibilities and probabilities, relevance, value of information, decision diagrams, risk attitudes, etc.
MS&E 254 The Ethical Analyst (R. Howard) (1-3) (EP)
This course is aimed at students who wish to be professional analysis. Students will learn about the ethical responsibility for consequences of analysis who used technical knowledge to support organizations or government. The course explores how to form ethical judgments and questions the means to any end. 

Theory 

EDUC 197 Education, Gender, and Development (C. Wotipka) (4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
Theories and perspectives from the social sciences relevant to the role of education in changing, modifying, or reproducing structures of gender differentiation and hierarchy. Cross-national research on the status of girls and women and the role of development organizations and processes.
EDUC 220C Education and Society (F. Ramirez) (4-5) (PK12, HE, EP)
Theories and perspectives from the social sciences relevant to the role of education in changing, modifying, or reproducing structures of gender differentiation and The effects of schools and schooling on individuals, the stratification system, and society. Education as socializing individuals and as legitimizing social institutions. The social and individual factors affecting the expansion of schooling, individual educational attainment, and the organizational structure of schooling.
EDUC 332 Theory and Practice of Environmental Education (N. Ardoin) (3) (HE)
Foundational understanding of the history, theoretical underpinnings, and practice of environmental education as a tool for addressing today's pressing environmental issues. The purpose, design, and implementation of environment education in formal and nonformal settings with youth and adult audiences. Field trip and community-based project offer opportunities for experiencing and engaging with environmental education initiatives. 

Skills

EDUC 278 Introduction to Issues in Evaluation (M. Ruiz-Primo) (3-4) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
Open to master's and doctoral students with priority to students in the School of Education. Focus is on the basic literature and major theoretical and practical issues in the field of program evaluation. Topics include: defining purpose, obtaining credible evidence, the role of the evaluator, working with stakeholder, values in evaluation, utilization, and professional standards. The course project is to design an evaluation for a complex national or international program selected by the instructor.
EDUC 290 Instructional Leadership: Building Capacity for Excellent Teaching (D. Brazer) (3-4) (PK12)
Designed with aspiring school leaders in mind, this course helps students understand how teacher learning and organizational learning are generated to improve educational quality at the school and district level. Students who wish to work at the district level may be interested in this course to learn a perspective on addressing school improvement.
EDUC 334A/STRAMGT 360 Strategic Educational Research and Organizational Reform Clinic (W. Koski) (4-10) (PK12, EP, NP)
This is a two-quarter clinical course offered in the Winter and Spring Quarters that brings together upper-level graduate students in education, law, and business from Stanford to collaborate with their peers at other universities (Columbia University, Harvard University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Michigan) and provide strategic research and consulting to public education organizations. Participants engage in a rigorous and rewarding learning experience, including: (i) An intensive seminar in the design, leadership and management, and transformation of public school systems, charter management organizations, start-ups, and other K-12 public- and social-sector institutions; (ii) Comprehensive skills training in team-based problem solving, strategic policy research, managing multidimensional (operational, policy, legal) projects to specified outcomes in complex environments, client counseling, and effective communication; and (iii) A high-priority consulting project for a public education sector client (e.g., school district, state education agency, charter management organization, non-profit) designing and implementing solutions to a complex problem at the core of the organization’s mission to improve the educational outcomes and life chances of children. The participant's team work will allow public agencies throughout the nation to receive relevant, timely, and high-quality research and advice on institutional reforms that otherwise may not receive the attention they deserve. Note: Enrollment in both Winter and Spring quarters is required. MA students must enroll for 4 or 5 units of credit per quarter. 
EDUC 377G Problem Solving for Social Change (P. Brest) (3) (PK12, HE, EP, NP)
(Also GSBGEN 367). GSB graduates will play important roles in solving many of today's and tomorrow's major societal problems - such as improving educational and health outcomes, conserving energy, and reducing global poverty - which call for actions by nonprofit, business, and hybrid organizations as well as governments. This course teaches skills and bodies of knowledge relevant to these roles through problems and case studies drawn from nonprofit organizations, for-profit social enterprises, and governments, as well as novel financing mechanisms like impact investments and social impact bonds. Topics include designing, implementing, scaling, and evaluating social strategies; systems thinking; decision making under risk; psychological biases that adversely affect people's decisions; methods for influencing individuals' and organization's behavior, ranging from incentives and penalties to "nudges;" and human-centered design. Students who have encountered some of these topics in other courses are likely to gain new perspectives and encounter new challenges in applying them to solving social problems
EDUC 391 Engineering Education and Online Learning (C. Thille) (3) (HE, ET)
An introduction to best practices in engineering education and educational technology, with a focus on online and blended learning. In addition to gaining a broad understanding of the field, students will experiment with a variety of education technologies, pedagogical techniques, and assessment methods.
CEE 251 Negotiation (S. Christensen) (3) (PK12, HE, NP)
This is an interactive course for students who wish to learn how to prepare for and conduct negotiations, from getting a job to managing conflict to negotiating transactions, all of which can occur in the school setting..
GSBGEN 377 Diverse Leadership as an Imperative for Impact - Lessons from Education (S. Colby) (3) (PK12, HE, NP)
Our society implicitly prizes a particular approach to leadership - but today's cross-sectoral, impact-oriented leader cannot afford to be restricted to a single approach. If we aspire to address challenges across social, economic, and political arenas, with highly charged moral implications and multiple stakeholders, we have an imperative to use all available tools by discovering, celebrating, and advancing diversity in leadership. Education provides the perfect canvas on which to explore this imperative. In this course, we will: (1) study a range of effective leadership approaches in the context of education; (2) develop broad, transportable skills and frameworks required to lead in any complex setting - business, public sector, nonprofit sector; (3) delve into leadership tradeoffs and tensions; (4) explore and understand our own values and tacit and explicit decision-making criteria; and (5) recognize barriers to diversity and tactics to address them. Guiding questions will include: How does the context shape the solution set? What does inspired and inspiring leadership look like? How do race/gender/other identities enter into the equation? How do I develop my own brand of leadership? We will examine contemporary leaders and controversies from education, draw upon timeless historical thinkers, enjoy the wisdom of guest speakers, and work intensively in small groups to highlight challenges, opportunities, and tradeoffs. By exploring a range of approaches and situations, we will strive for deeper understanding of ourselves and of the context to become a more capable, empathetic and effective leaders.
MED 247 Methods in Community Assessment, Evaluation, and Research (M. Kiernan, M. Stefanick) (3) (PK12, HE, NP, EP)
While not specifically focused on educational research, this course is designed for students who would like to develop their skills in designing, implementing, and analyzing structured interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and field observations.
OB 372 High-Performance Leadership (S. Levine) (4) (PK12, HE, NP)
This course asks the question: "What does it take to build high-performance?" The focus is on middle and upper-middle management in contemporary organizations that have complex tasks, exist in a rapidly changing environment, and have highly skilled subordinates. The premise of the course is that traditional methods of management may produce adequate levels of performance but prevent excellence from developing. New approaches to leadership will be presented that are more likely to lead to a truly high-performing system. Time will be spent discussing the components of effective leadership, what a manager can do to build a compelling vision, strong teams, and mutual influence sideways and upwards as well as with direct reports. Also, what members can do to support the leader who wants to initiate such changes. In addition to class, students will meet for 2 1/2 hours each week in a Skill Development Group to apply the course material to their own personal development. (While there is minimal overlap in content between OB 372 and OB 374 and these two classes are highly complementary, both require Journals and an evening group. We recommend against taking both classes in the same quarter for workload reasons.) Students will have a choice as to when their SDG will meet. The expectation is full attendance at all SDG meetings. Only one excused class absence. Attendance is required in EIS Simulation and the Consulting Project classes.
PSYCH 146 Observation of Children (P. Chandra, A. Lomangino, J. Winters) (3-5) (PK12)
Learning about children through guided observations at Bing Nursery School, Psychology's lab for research and training in child development. Physical, emotional, social, cognitive, and language development. Recommended: 60.