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Guillermo Solano-Flores

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Guillermo Solano-Flores
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Current research projects examine academic language and testing, formative assessment practices for culturally diverse science classrooms, and the design and use of illustrations in international test comparisons and in the testing of English language learners.

Dr. Guillermo Solano-Flores is Professor of Education at the Stanford University Graduate School of Education. He specializes in educational assessment and the linguistic and cultural issues that are relevant to both international test comparisons and the testing of cultural and linguistic minorities. His research is based on the use of multidisciplinary approaches that use psychometrics, sociolinguistics, semiotics, and cognitive science in combination. He has conducted research on the development, translation, localization, and review of science and mathematics tests. He has been principal investigator in several National Science Foundation-funded projects that have examined the intersection of psychometrics, semiotics, and linguistics in testing. He is the author of the theory of test translation error, which addresses testing across cultures and languages. Also, he has investigated the use of generalizability theory—a psychometric theory of measurement error—in the testing of English language learners and indigenous populations. He has advised Latin American countries on the development of national assessment systems. Also, he has been the advisor to countries in Latin America, Asia, Europe, Middle East, and Northern Africa on the adaptation and translation of performance tasks into multiple languages.

Solano-Flores, G., (in press). The participation of Latin American countries in international assessments: Assessment capacity, validity, and fairness. In, L. E. Suter, E. Smith & B. D. Denman, B. D.T (Eds.), Sage Handbook on Comparative Studies in Education: Practices and Experiences in student schooling and learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 

Zhao, X., Solano-Flores, G., & Qian, M. (2017). International test comparisons: Reviewing translation error in different source language-target language combinations. International Multilingual Research Journal, 12(1), 17-27. ,DOI: 10.1080/19313152.2017.1349527

Solano-Flores, G., & Chía, M. (2017). Multiple language versions of tests. In K. Ercikan & J. Pellegrino (Eds.), Validation of score meaning in the next generation of assessments: The use of response processes (pp. 127-137). New York: Routledge.  

Solano-Flores, G. (2017). Chapter 46: Generalizability.  In D. Wyse, N. Selwyn, E. Smith, & L. E. Suter, (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Research (pp. 937-956). London, UK, Sage.

Solano-Flores, G. (2017). Chapter 11: Principles of formative assessment. In M. D. Guerrero, M. C. Guerrero, L. Soltero-González, & K. Escamilla, (Eds.), Abriendo brecha: Antología crítica sobre la educación bilingüe de doble inmersión (pp.201-215). (Sp.) Dual Language Education of New Mexico Fuente Press. Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Solano-Flores, G. (2016). Assessing English language learners: Theory and practice. New York: Routledge.

Solano-Flores, G. & Milbourn, T. (2016). Assessment capacity, cultural validity, and consequential validity in PISA. RELIEVE, 22(1), M12. DOI:

Solano-Flores, Guillermo & Milbourn, Tamara (2016). Assessment Capacity, Cultural Validity, and Consequential Validity in PISA. RELIEVE, 22(1), M12. DOI:

Solano-Flores, G., Wang, C., & Shade, C. (2016). International semiotics: Item difficulty and the complexity of science item illustrations in the PISA-2009 international test comparison. International Journal of Testing, (3)

Solano-Flores, G., & Wang, C. (2015). Complexity of illustrations in PISA-2009 science items and its relationship to the performance of students from Shanghai-China, the United States, and Mexico. Teachers College Record, 117(1), 1-18.  ID Number: 17725

Solano-Flores, G., Backhoff, E., Contreras-Niño, L. A., & Vázquez-Muñoz, M. (2015). Language shift and the inclusion of indigenous populations in large-scale assessment programs. International Journal of Testing, 15(2), 136–152. DOI: 10.1080/15305058.2014.947649

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